The former exposes intrusions of syenite. [45] The lower southern slope receives 800 to 900 millimetres (31 to 35 in) annually, rising to 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 in) at 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) altitude and peaking "partly over" 3,000 millimetres (120 in) in the forest belt at 2,000 to 2,300 metres (6,600 to 7,500 ft). [34]:17–19, In 1889, Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt. [65] This record was equaled by Montannah Kenney from Texas in March 2018. Large animals are rare on Kilimanjaro and are more frequent in the forests and lower parts of the mountain. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro International Airport also serves as an important traffic hub. Mawenzi and Shira are extinct but Kibo, the highest peak, is dormant and could erupt again. Between 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), coffee also appears as part of the "Chagga home gardens" agroforestry. [65], In 2020, a team featuring two double above-knee amputees, Hari Budha Magar and Justin Oliver Davis, summited Kilimanjaro. Shira to the west and Mawenzi in the east are older cones that make up Kilimanjaro. [52]:674, Snowfall can occur at any time of year but is mostly associated with northern Tanzania's two rainy seasons. Mount Kilimanjaro is a stratovolcano that formed as the plates below it dropped and porous basalt rock magma erupted through the surface of the ocean. The crater of Kilimanjaro with its famous concentric structure of nested calderas (photo courtesy: P. Nicholson) to top. Kibo's glacier-clad summit, the highest spot in Africa, is a 1.2 x 1.7 mile (1.9 x 2.7 km) caldera, with an inner crater nearly a mile (1.3 km) wide, and inside that a deep, 1,148 ft. (350 m) wide central pit. Before the caldera formed and erosion began, Shira might have been between 4,900 and 5,200 m (16,100 and 17,100 ft) high. Nearly 250 satellitic cones occur on Kilimanjaro, most following SE and NW trends. Glacier ice also flowed through the Western Breach. [68] Her ascent time of 7:08 was broken on 23 February 2018 by the Danish ultramarathon runner Kristina Schou Madsen with a time of 6:52:54 from Mweka Gate. "[92] On October 11, 2020, a fire broke out on Mount Kilimanjaro and consumed 28 square kilometres of vegetation [1], A legend tells of ivory-filled graves of elephants on the mountain, and of a cow named Rayli that produces miraculous fat from her tail glands. Shira is topped by a broad plateau, perhaps a filled caldera, and erosion has cut deeply into a remnant rim. Before Ptolemy, Aeschylus and Herodotus referred to "Egypt nurtured by the snows" and to a spring between two mountains, respectively. However, "[i]t is ... possible ... that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Wachagga names: Kibo and Kimawenzi. Approaching from the saddle between Mawenzi and Kibo, Höhnel stopped at 4,950 metres (16,240 ft), but Teleki continued until he reached the snow at 5,300 metres (17,400 ft). mi. Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano. Native vegetation at this altitude range (Strombosia, Newtonia, and Entandrophragma) is limited to inaccessible valleys and gorges[46] and is completely different from vegetation at higher altitudes. For other uses, see, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (. [85] A retrospective study of 917 persons who attempted to reach the summit via the Lemosho or Machame routes found that 70.4 percent experienced AMS, defined in this study to be headache, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, or loss of appetite. [42], A map of the Kibo cone on Mount Kilimanjaro was published by the British government's Directorate of Overseas Surveys (DOS) in 1964 based on aerial photography conducted in 1962 as the "Subset of Kilimanjaro, East Africa (Tanganyika) Series Y742, Sheet 56/2, D.O.S. Mount Kilimanjaro is volcanic mountain with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo" 5,895 metres (19,341 feet), "Mawenzi" 5,149 meters (16,896 feet), and "Shira" 3,962 meters (13,000 feet). As all of Kilimanjaro's climbers know the gentle lower slopes steepen to 30 degrees about 13,000 ft.(4 km) elevation. The Western-Breach is more secluded and avoids the 6-hour midnight ascent to the summit (like other routes). Kilimanjaro is the fourth most topographically prominent peak on Earth. {{records|title= Youngest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro via the Western Breach route|url=, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, daily upslope and nightly downslope winds, Higher precipitation rates at the beginning, "World Peaks with 4000 meters of Prominence", "Kilimanjaro, Mount | Meaning of Kilimanjaro, Mount by Lexico", "New K Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa", "The New Digital Orthometric Elevation Model of Kilimanjaro", "Ueber die Gesteine des Kilimandscharo und dessen Umgebung", "Kilimanjaro airport upgrade to double its capacity", "Across East African glaciers: an account of the first ascent of Kilimanjaro", "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa", "Baron Carl Claus von der Decken – 1833–1865 – Collectors in East Africa – 31", "A Century of Photogrammetry on Kilimanjaro", "Kinyongia tavetana (STEINDACHNER, 1891)", "Kilimanjaro Ice Core Records: Evidence of Holocene Climate Change in Tropical Africa", "Glacier loss on Kilimanjaro continues unabated", "East African glacier loss and climate change: Corrections to the UNEP article, "Oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro", http://www.ventique.co.uk/kilimanjaro.jpg, "Girl Who Wanted to 'Be Closer to Her Dad' Becomes Youngest Female to Hike Mount Kilimanjaro". The Geology of Kilimanjaro 1972; by C. Downie & P. Wilkinson, VW is a higher education, k-12, and public outreach project of the. miles. [25], In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called Kilima-Ndscharo in German following the Kiswahili name components. [44] In recent years, numerous other maps have become available, of various qualities. Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft);[9] and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). [47], Records from the Maundi crater at 2,780 metres (9,120 ft) indicate that the vegetation of Kilimanjaro has varied over time. Also notable are the East and West Barrancos on the northeastern side of the mountain. The magma and other debris formed layers with each eruption, eventually rising high enough to bring Mount Kilimanjaro … Kilimanjaro is the highest volcanic peak of Africa that … It is a giant stratovolcano that began forming about a million years ago and is composed of many layers of hardened volcanic ash, lava, pumice … Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. of andesites and basalts, Kibo has the same volume of similar but unexposed rocks, plus an additional 107 cu. On the southern slope montane forests first contain Ocotea usambarensis as well as ferns and epiphytes, farther up in cloud forests Podocarpus latifolius, Hagenia abyssinica and Erica excelsa grow as well as fog-dependent mosses. Kilimanjaro volcano. [53] While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appears to be unique within its almost twelve millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe. [13] Kibo has five main lava formations:[11], Kibo has more than 250 parasitic cones on its northwest and southeast flanks that were formed between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago[11] and erupted picrobasalts, trachybasalts, ankaramites, and basanites. Bushbucks, chameleons, dik-diks, duikers, mongooses, sunbirds, and warthogs have also been reported. Also called a stratovolcano (a term for a very large volcano made of ash, lava, and rock), Kilimanjaro is made up of three cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. [40]:84 On 18 October, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch. Mawenzi has a subsidiary peak, Neumann Tower, 4,425 metres (14,518 ft).[11][13][14]. One of these mentions two tall mountains in the coastal regions with a valley with traces of fire between. Many people have been told that Kilimanjaro is a volcano, but that is not strictly true – it’s actually three volcanoes. Based on this data, this icefield formed between 1,250 and 1,450 years BP. Based on these definitions, Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano. [80] The Marangu is also relatively easy, if frequently busy; accommodation is in shared huts. The Tussock Grassland is an area on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro that contains many unique species of vegetation such as the water holding cabbage. 8.  location: Tanzania, Africa Elevation: 5,895 Meters Type of volcano: Stratovolcano Eruption style: explosive Recent Eruptions: Geologists have found out that Mount Kilimanjaro's last eruption happened 360,000 years ago, but the volcano did show some activity around 200 years ago.Mount Kilimanjaro is known as a dormant volcano(has not erupted in a very long time … The first people known to have reached the summit were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889. The Rongai is the easiest of the camping routes. The ice-capped summit towers 5,200 m above the surrounding plains. While Abbott turned back earlier, Ehlers at first claimed to have reached the summit rim, but after severe criticism of the claim, withdrew it. A Handbook for Medical Officers", "Deaths Due to High Altitude Illness Among Tourists Climbing Mt Kilimanjaro", "American couple to exchange vows on Mount Kilimanjaro", "Couple marries on top of Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest peak", "More couples exchange marriage vows on Africa's roof", "Cricketers play on Kilimanjaro to set new world record", Weather forecast for Mount Kilimanjaro (19,565 feet), Glacial Recession on Kilimanjaro (pictures of southern icefields), Aerial photographs of Mount Kilimanjaro, 1937–38, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mount_Kilimanjaro&oldid=1001599200, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Articles needing translation from French Wikipedia, Pages using infobox mountain with deprecated parameters, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Kilimanjaro map and guide by Wielochowski. [81] The Lemosho Western-Breach Route commences on the western side of Kilimanjaro at Lemosho and continues to the summit via the Western-Breach Route.[54][82]. It is considered a dormant volcano, which is different from an extinct volcano because it means it could erupt again . Shira to the west and Mawenzi in the east are older cones that make up Kilimanjaro. [15]:3, The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old. A stratovolcano is formed by a series of layers of ash and lava laid on top of each other as a volcano goes through different eruptive phases. It is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. Considering that the name Kilimanjaro has never been current among the Wachagga people, it is possible that the name was derived from Wachagga saying that the mountain was unclimbable, kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, and porters misinterpreting this as being the name of the mountain. [24], Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain Kilimanjaro. Other names for this volcano are: Kilima Dscharo, Oldoinyo Oibor (white mountain in Masai), and Kilima Njaro meaning shining mountain in Swahili. [10], In contrast to the persistent slope glaciers, the glaciers on Kilimanjaro's crater plateau have appeared and disappeared repeatedly during the Holocene epoch, with each cycle lasting a few hundred years. Bushland / Lower Slope:, 800 m – 1,800 m (2,600 ft – 5,900 ft); Rainforest Zone: 1,800 m – 2,800 m (5,900 ft – 9,200 ft); Heather / Moorland: 2,800 m – 4,000 m (9,200 ft – 13,100 ft); Alpine Desert Zone: 4,000 m – 5,000 m (13,100 ft– 16,400 ft); Arctic Zone: 5,000 m – 5,895 m (16,400 ft – 19,300 ft). [40]:85, In 1989, the organizing committee of the 100-year celebration of the first ascent decided to award posthumous certificates to the African porter-guides who had accompanied Meyer and Purtscheller. Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on average to −9 °C (16 °F) with an average daytime high of −4 °C (25 °F). The formation of the caldera was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, but there was no large scale explosive activity. Their continuing demise indicates they are still out of equilibrium in response to a constant change in climate over the past century. [47][48] Neophytes have been observed, including Poa annua. Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano reaching an elevation of 19,335.6 ft. (5,895 m). [41] Lauwo did not know his own age,[41] nor remember Meyer or Purtscheller. Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach. The forests of Kilimanjaro, far below the ice fields, "are [the] essential water reservoirs for the local and regional populations". [89], Falls on steep portions of the mountain and rock slides have killed trekkers. [65][67] [68][69] Previous records, using the same route, were held by Spanish mountain runner Kílian Jornet (ascent in 5:23:50, roundtrip 7:14 on 29 September 2010) and by Tanzanian guide Simon Mtuy (an unsupported roundtrip in 9:21 on 22 February 2006). On 26 September 2014, a new world record for the highest-ever cricket match was set when a group of international cricketers played on a flat crater on the mountain at an elevation of 5,730 metres (18,800 ft). In 2012, Kyle Maynard who has no forearms or lower legs, crawled unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. [55], A continuous ice cap covering approximately 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) down to an elevation of 3,200 metres (10,500 ft) covered Kilimanjaro during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene epoch (the Main glacial episode), extending across the summits of Kibo and Mawenzi. UNESCO, date uncertain, Kilimanjaro National Park, UNESCO (URL:whc.unesco.org/en/list/403) Geologic Background. [26], Njaro is an ancient Kiswahili word for shining. [58] In 2013 it was estimated that, at the current rate, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040 and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060". [60], Almost 85 percent of the ice cover on Kilimanjaro disappeared between October 1912 and June 2011, with coverage decreasing from 11.40 square kilometres (4.40 sq mi) to 1.76 square kilometres (0.68 sq mi). [41] The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871. [53], Kibo's diminishing ice cap exists because Kilimanjaro is a little-dissected, massive mountain that rises above the snow line. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a Spanish traveller to Mombasa who obtained information about the interior from native caravans, said in his Summa de Geografía (1519) that west of Mombasa "stands the Ethiopian Mount Olympus, which is exceedingly high, and beyond it are the Mountains of the Moon, in which are the sources of the Nile". [40]:81 The following year, Meyer planned another attempt with Oscar Baumann, a cartographer, but the mission was aborted after the pair were held hostage and ransomed during the Abushiri Revolt. Below that altitude, increased evaporation and human water usage reduces the waterflows. Massive series of radial and concentric dyke swarm make up more than 30-40 percent of the summit area of Mawenzi. Where in the World Did Karl Egloff Come From? [32], The national park is accessible by road. [11] They are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 metres (14,400 ft) elevation. [70][65][71], The female roundtrip record is held by Fernanda Maciel from Brazil in a time of 10 hours and 6 minutes. [10][16] The slope glaciers retreated rapidly between 1912 and 1953, in response to a sudden shift in climate at the end of the 19th century that made them "drastically out of equilibrium", and more slowly thereafter. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Location: 3.07 S, 37.35 E Elevation: 19,335.6 ft (5,895m) Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano reaching an elevation of 19,335.6 ft. (5,895 m). Kilimanjaro is the largest of an E-W belt of about 20 volcanoes near the southern end of the East African Rift Valley. The largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Fact #3 It Consists Of Three Volcanic Cones. [68][72], Several climbs by disabled people have drawn attention. Theodore Margaroli from London age 10 reached the summit unassisted by the Western Breach, the hardest but most scenic route in 2019. [86], Kilimanjaro's summit is well above the altitude at which life-threatening high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), the most severe forms of AMS, can occur. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 11:58. 3 S 37 E Mount Kilimanjaro is located on the border of Kenya and Tanzania. Under the latter meaning, kilima meant mountain and jaro meant caravans. Within this caldera is the Inner Cone and within the crater of the Inner Cone is the Reusch Crater, which the Tanganyika government in 1954 named after Gustav Otto Richard Reusch, upon his climbing the mountain for the 25th time (out of 65 attempts during his lifetime). [12] The height has since been measured as 5,892 metres (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,902 metres (19,364 ft) in 2008, and 5,899 metres (19,354 ft) in 2014. No clear warming trend at the elevation of those glaciers occurred between 1948 and 2005. ", "Prepare yourself for the Kilimanjaro climb", "Determinants of Summiting Success and Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt Kilimanjaro (5895 m)", "Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. It consists of three volcanic cones, which have erupted in the past. Most of these cones are well preserved, with the exception of the Saddle Plateau cones that were heavily affected by glacial action. Kilimanjaro is a site for visitors who climb. [22], The origin of the name Kilimanjaro is not known, but a number of theories exist. Estimates suggest that of a total volume of about 1,150 cu. Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. Standing at 5,895 metres above sea level and about 4,900 metres above its plateau base, Kilimanjaro is also the highest single free-standing mountain in the world. 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