They had to do this because Rome had grown in size and it was impossible to find a natural source of fresh water in the city. It was also necessary to find a way of disposing of the rubbish to prevent pollution causing health problems. They had a system of fresh running water and a sewer system, as clean water was considered essential. Despite the reliance on a mystical approach to healing, Roman society maintained reasonably good health throughout its history. The Romans were the first civilization to introduce a public health system. Aqueducts were built to transport fresh water into the city. One of the most important aspects of Roman public health was the use of aqueducts. Happy New Year!